The SLIQ has 12 questions; three on diet, three on physical activity, three on alcohol consumption, two on smoking, and one on stress—see Supplementary Figure 1 (see Supplementary Materials available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/529645). ), SLIQ versus alcohol consumption ( ”, quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between two variables. Question 1 asks “In general, would you say your health is □ Excellent □ Very Good □ Good □ Fair □ Poor.”. Convergent Validity. Initial psychometric testing of its reliability, internal validity, and basic external validity testing was published in 2008 . Convergent validity occurs where measures of constructs that are expected to correlate do so. 2013, Article ID 529645, 6 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.5402/2013/529645, 1Primary Healthcare Research Unit, Discipline of Family Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada. In psychometrics Concurrent validity is demonstrated when a test correlates well with a measure that has previously been validated. And finally Cohen  uses a benchmark of Each participant provided basic demographic data and completed the SLIQ instrument, a detailed Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) [11, 12], the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) [13, 14], Question 1 on the SF36 Health Status Questionnaire [15–18], and a survey of eight questions on cardiovascular risk proposed by Spencer et al. A) convergent validity B) discriminant validity C) criterion validity Apparently, the right answer is A), but I think you could still argue for C) in the following manner: Scores on the final exam is the outcome measure and GPA, amount of time spent studying, and class attendance predict it. , Convergent validity is usually accomplished by demonstrating a correlation between the two measures, although it’s rare that any two measures will be perfectly convergent. Discriminant validity (or divergent validity) tests that constructs that should have no … It measures five lifestyle risk factors and provides a score for each component, as well as an overall lifestyle score. A French version is also available, but none of the psychometric testing has been carried out in French. external validity of 0.77. the validity diagonal should be sig-nificantly different from zero and sufficiently large to encourage further examination of validity. eaten on a weekly basis over the previous year. The data in Table 3 shows that the three categories are clearly separated with almost no overlap. Concurrent validity. The practices have electronic medical records (EMRs). And this for convergent validity: "Convergent validity refers to the degree to which scores on a test correlate with (or are related to) scores on other tests that are designed to assess the same construct. On the bottom part of the figure (Observation) w… While lifestyle and health status are related, they would not be expected to have high correlation since a change in one may precede or follow the other rather than necessarily exist concurrently. It has also been suggested that since the eight questions used by Spencer et al. The interpretation systems described above would place most of these Validity Convergent/Concurrent. We believe the SLIQ is sufficiently valid when compared to reference standards to be useful as a brief assessment of an individual’s cardiovascular lifestyle in research and clinical settings. intelligence) is actually measuring that construct. Construct Validity: Convergent vs. Discriminant. Correlations between scores on the SLIQ and the reference standards were the SLIQ versus DHQ ( Others divide the correlation coefficient into three categories where an ex. We also report on convergent validity of the whole instrument and compare the overall SLIQ scores to scores on a similar series of questions that have been correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and morbidity. • criterion validity, (which includes concurrent and predic-tive validity); • construct validity (which includes convergent, divergent, factorial and discriminant validity) (Lynn 1986). Concurrent and Convergent Validity of the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire, Primary Healthcare Research Unit, Discipline of Family Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada, http://www.dmstat1.com/res/TheCorrelationCoefficientDefined.html, Completed college diploma or university degree, Some postgraduate or professional training, Completed postgraduate or professional training, Eight-question scale developed by Spencer et al. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. Marshall Godwin, Andrea Pike, Cheri Bethune, Allison Kirby, Adam Pike, "Concurrent and Convergent Validity of the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire", International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. It mentions at the beginning before any validity evidence is discussed that "historically, this type of evidence has been referred to as concurrent validity, convergent and discriminant validity, predictive validity, and criterion-related validity." For instance, Item 1 might be the statement “I feel good about myself” rated using a 1-to-5 Likert-type response format. As mentioned in the results, the correlation for SLIQ stress score versus the SRRS stress score is negative. Physical activity score was compared with number of steps on a pedometer. In 2003, Hemphill  reviewed the literature that reported correlation coefficients and divided them into tertiles: one-third reported coefficients <0.2, the middle third reported coefficients between 0.2 and 0.3, and the upper third reported coefficients >0.3. Subsequently two further blocks of 100 people per age group were contacted until we had sufficient sample size. The final comparison, between the SLIQ lifestyle score and self-assessed health on the SF36 (Question 1), is considered an assessment of convergent validity rather than concurrent validity in that the expectation is not that the correlations would be high but rather in the fair or moderate range. between 0.0 and 0.3 indicates a weak relationship, 0.3 to 0.7 indicates a moderate relationship, and >7 indicates a strong relationship . The scoring template is shown in Supplementary Figure 2. There are two forms of criterion-related validity: predictive validity and concurrent validity. . Contrasted groups. Convergent validity for the LEAS-C as an objective assessment of emotion complexity in children was demonstrated by a significant association with an emotion comprehension task and two verbal tasks. Two methods are often applied to test convergent validity. However, whilst concurrent validity compared a new measurement procedure with a well-established measurement procedure, both measurement procedures are new when testing for convergent validity. They compared the response to eight questions on diet, activity, smoking, alcohol, and BMI to a person’s likelihood of dying. The SLIQ diet and alcohol components correlate well with diet and alcohol as assessed by DHQ ( CONCURRENT VALIDITY : "Concurrent validity is mandated in many experimental processes." One hundred and ninety-three adults completed all the questionnaires allowing correlational statistics to be completed. Testing for this type of validity requires that you essentially ask your sample similar questions that are designed to provide you with expected answers. The scoring template is shown in SupplementaryFigure2. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups,”, W. M. Hopman, T. Towheed, T. Anastassiades et al., “Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey,”, C. A. Spencer, K. Jamrozik, P. E. Norman, and M. Lawrence-Brown, “A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men,”, C. Tudor-Locke, L. Burkett, J. P. Reis, B. E. Ainsworth, C. A. Macera, and D. K. Wilson, “How many days of pedometer monitoring predict weekly physical activity in adults?”, P. L. Schneider, S. E. Crouter, and D. R. Bassett, “Pedometer measures of free-living physical activity: comparison of 13 models,”, J. F. Hemphill, “Interpreting the magnitudes of correlations coefficients,”. report. Details of education, marital status, income, and BMI are shown in Table 1. Showing that an IQ test is valid by comparing the results of it to academic results and seeing a positive correlation. Finally, the study population was somewhat skewed towards women (65%) and older age group (mean age 65 years). Construct validity’s main idea is that a test used to measure a construct is, in fact, measuring a construct. Initial psychometric testing of the SLIQ  resulted in a test-retest reliability between 0.63 and 0.97; a Cronbach α of 0.58 for diet and 0.6 for physical activity, and blinded external validity of 0.77. Criterion validity A measurement technique has criterion validity if its results are closely related to those given by Concurrent validity is a type of evidence that can be gathered to defend the use of a test for predicting other outcomes. I think this might be what throwing me off most of all about it since those all are for the most part different things. Some other types of validity are: Composite, Concurrent, Convergent, Consequential, Curricular and Instructional, Ecological, External, Face, Formative validity & Summative Validity, Incremental Validity, Internal, Predictive, Sampling, and Statistical Conclusion Validity. In 2005, Spencer et al. Like to me the examples given just seem so similar, I have no clue how to differentiate them because in both examples they're comparing scores between two tests. Validity Convergent/Concurrent. This is because lifestyle and health status are not measurements of the same construct but rather related constructs. ). This was the motive behind the development of the SLIQ. and 0.665, resp. Hence, a correlation of CONCURRENT VALIDITY: "Concurrent validity is mandated in many experimental processes." A common denominator which most validity concepts share in contradis-tinction to reliability is that this agreement represent the convergence of independent approaches. To increase the accuracy of measurement, we often have to use long and detailed questionnaires or similar meticulous processes. Supplementary Figure 2: Show the 12 questions on the SLIQ and how raw and category scores are calculated for each of the five component scores and the Overall SLIQ scores. Convergent validity applies greatly in medicine, education, psychology, and social science. For concurrent validity, we hoped to achieve correlation coefficients of 0.4 or higher and ideally larger than 0.6. Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity. The SRRS collects information on stressful life events in the past year. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. One hundred and ninety-three individuals from St. John’s, Newfoundland, and Labrador, Canada completed the SLIQ and reference standards for diet, exercise, stress, and alcohol consumption. They give employees the scale to fill out on the same day as a similar, but longer and decades-old leadership test. There are two forms of criterion-related validity: predictive validity and concurrent validity. ). In the figure below, we see four measures (each is an item on a scale) that all purport to reflect the construct of self esteem. Two methods are often applied to test convergent validity. Convergent validity is one of the topics related to construct validity (Gregory, 2007). The correlation coefficient, usually designated as “ If the scores for each employee on both tests are closely related, then the new scale is said to have high concurrent validity. Concurrent validity is determined by comparing the score on the instrument of interest; in this case the SLIQ, with the score on a reference standard—a measurement tool that is known to accurately measure that same construct. Testing for this type of validity requires that you essentially ask your sample similar questions that are designed to provide you with expected answers. Divergent Validity – When two opposite questions reveal opposite results. Nilsson, and G. Berglund, “Chronic psychosocial stress predicts long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged men,”, D. Mozaffarian, P. W. F. Wilson, and W. B. Kannel, “Beyond established and novel risk factors lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease,”, M. Godwin, S. Streight, E. Dyachuk et al., “Testing the simple lifestyle indicator questionnaire: initial psychometric study,”, T. H. Holmes and R. H. Rahe, “The social readjustment rating scale,”, M. Horowitz, C. Schaefer, and D. Hiroto, “Life event questionnaires for measuring presumptive stress,”, C. A. McHorney, J. E. Ware Jr., and A. E. Raczek, “The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. 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